Apps and Sample Software

High Resolution Crop Mapping of the North China Plain

Crop type mapping at the field level is necessary for a variety of applications in agricultural monitoring and water resources management. Remote sensing imagery is a powerful input from which crop type maps can be created. 

 

hydrosolutions ltd has designed a browser app called CropMapper to facilitate users with no or minimal background in remote sensing to access and use such data for their purposes. The app generates high resolution (10 m) seasonal and annual maps of crop types for the North China Plain from 2016 onwards. The North China Plain is one of China's most important agricultural regions, producing maize, winter wheat, vegetables, and cotton. The plain extends over much of Henan, Hebei, and Shandong provinces. The CropMapper allows generating individual maps for 260 counties in these three provinces covering a total area of 270'000 square kilometers.

 

The following maps can be generated with the CropMapper:

• Winter Crop Area (January – May)

• Summer Crop Area (July – September)

• Winter Wheat Area

• Winter Fallow Area

• Summer Maize Area

• Greenhouse Area

Earth Surface Temperature Mapping

Due to more frequent and intensifying heat waves, the issue of urban heat islands obtains more and more public attention. Surface temperatures (ST) are affected by the modification of land surfaces, but it is often difficult to understand and foresee the impact of past and ongoing land-use changes on the microclimatic landscape. With Google Earth Engine we created an ST-mapper application that allows any user to examine the distribution of surface temperatures and track changes over time. The app can be used to discover newly formed urban heat islands and visualizes the cooling effect of natural vegetation. The data for the app is obtained in near-real-time from Landsat and MODIS satellites, that have been collecting free-to-use thermal infrared imagery for more than 20 years. The sample application featured here maps surface temperature in Xiong’an New Area, an area 400 km south of Beijing that has been assigned in 2017 to become the new deputy capital city of China. The application can be accessed by clicking on the image.

Dryland Crop Type Mapping in Uzbekistan

Google Earth Engine is a powerful platform to access and analyze wast archives of open-source remote sensing data. We created different CropMapper applications using Google Earth Engine to map crop types in the global drylands. The sample application featured here maps crops in three different areas of interest in Uzbekistan. The application can be accessed by clicking on the image.

discharge.ch

The iMoMo Discharge App measure levels, velocity and discharge of rivers and channels in 2 minutes with the camera of your smartphone. In addition to the digitised measured values, proof images are stored on the phone and transmitted automatically to a web database to which your organisations can have a customised web access. The web database is integrated in a cloud-based platform (discharge.ch) designed for large-scale acquisition of hydrometric and meteorological data. discharge.ch features a web-based dashboard for easy administration and data management, including data export.

Guantao Irrigation Calculator

The Guantao Irrigation Calculator computes irrigation water demand as a function of crop choice and planting date, soil types and local climate in Guantao, Heihe Province, China. The web-based tool uses an FAOs AQUACROP web-service to calculate irrigation water requirements. AquaCrop attempts to balance accuracy, simplicity and robustness and uses a small number of input parameters and variables to compute monthly values.

forecastQ

Where long-term data is available, ensemble statistical modelling techniques provide powerful modern methods for improved forecasting of river runoff at different timescales. River runoff forecasting at various lead timescales is of key interest to operational runoff forecast departments and for water as well as water infrastructure stakeholders that need to manage the resources and plan for allocation of expected future water availability. The web-App shows a sample application for Central Asian rivers. The methods can be applied anywhere globally if long data records are available.  

International Rivers Dataset

Hydro-political dependencies between countries are widely regarded as having important implications for international water cooperation and conflict. Quantitative ex-post empirical research on the subject so far uses very simple characterisations of international river geography to proxy for such dependencies, though. The authors developed a new geo-spatial dataset for water catchments worldwide. This dataset combines elevation models, flow accumulation approaches, hydrological data, and data on international boundaries to generate more precise and nuanced measures of hydro-political dependencies among riparian countries. The paper discusses these measurement concepts, illustrates how dependencies are distributed worldwide, and revisits three prominent quantitative studies on the issue to show how using improved data affects empirical findings. In contrast to a very popular presumption, upstream–downstream dependencies turn out to have a very small to insignificant effect on international water cooperation or conflict.

GAP maps

The Groundwater Assessment Platform (www.gapmaps.org), developed by an EAWAG-led consoritum, hosts information on geogenic contamination of groundwater by arsenic and fluoride. It provides the possibility to share data, case studies and field experiences as well as to interact with other users and create probabilistic maps for any area on the globe. The site has two main sections. In GAP Maps, you can display and print existing data and models as well as manipulate and model your own data and create hazard maps. The GAP Wiki contains diverse information on geogenic contamination. hydrosolutions ltd. contributed to strategic and business model development.

Transboundary Water Information System Dashboard

Under the hydrosolutions ltd. led past iMoMo Kyrgyzstan Project and the ongoing Water Accounting and Accountability in the Chu-Talas Transboundary Rivers Project in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, the International Office for Water [IOWater] has developed a transboundary water information system dashboard. It allows for the effective sharing and exchange of operational data of key water structures in the river basins at transboundary scales. Additionally, quarterly bulletins of the state of water resources  are produced and shared accordingly between interested stakeholders. 

Water User Organizations Water Accounting

Water and financial accounting for Water User Organisations is challenging as normally, a multitude of users gets served by different supply sources, including from canals and groundwater, under possibly different pricing structures (area-based, volumetric, free-of charge sources). Web-based accounting technology that can also automatically accommodate field sensor readings, including from staff gauges, mobile crowd-sensed data and from fixed sensors are advantageous for effective accounting and accountability. SoftVisi Ltd., and Almaty-based company has implemented such system under the lead of hydrosolutions ltd. The system is currently deployed in a number of Kyrgyz WUA and tested together with local stakeholders.  

Operational Hydrology Web-based Data Management

hydrosolutions ltd. operational hydrology web tool is modelled after requirements for managing data from mountain rivers in the Central Asia context. The web-tool allows safe and secure gauging station administration, the maintenance and update of discharge-height relationships at the stations and reporting and synthesising these data for regular reporting. An operational forecasting tool is linked to the web database (see forecastQ). With the hydromet tool, a Hydromet Service can administer an arbitrary number of stations.  

Multi-Objective Groundwater Management

Groundwater management refers to the problem of finding pumping schedules that minimise associated discounted present costs given resource and supply constraints. The costs have 2 components: facility installation costs and energy costs that result from pumping and conveying. Constraints exist in the form of drawdown restrictions, gradient criteria as well as quantitative supply constraints. The search space is highly dimensional since potentially, pumps can be installed at any location to tap the groundwater system. For each of these pumps, the pumping schedule is a time-series of pumping rates. Due to installation costs as well due to the complex nature of the resource, the problem is highly non-dimensional and standard requirements such as continuity and differentiability do not exist.

Various users from differing institutional and economic background access groundwater to satisfy their demand each one pursuing his objective. Hence, optimal groundwater management is intrinsically a multi-objective task.

Here, we present a multi-objective optimisation tool (MatLab) that is based on a genetic evolutionary algorithm that couples to a finite difference Modflow representation of the underlying aquifer. Installation, pumping as well as conveyance costa are taken into account. Third, an adaptive heuristics ensures constraint compliance and moves resp. switches on and off boreholes. Third, the optimisation problem is truly multi-objective and does not rely on the aggregation of the objective vector. With this, we can approximate the Pareto-optimal front of solutions that provides a base for further negotiations to be carried out between the users.
 

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